A cooperative contractual arrangement between two or more municipalities.

Administrative tools:

  1. Adopt compatible comprehensive plans and zoning.
  2. Adopt compatible plans for resource protection – wetlands, aquifer, watershed, viewshed.
  3. Local governments can establish joint trades and commissions.


To effect control over issues (economic, environmental) that extend beyond municipal borders. To limit impacts between adjacent communities. To qualify for incentives or funding otherwise not available. Economies of scale – share costs of technical studies as well as inspection and enforcement officers.


Can only go so far in binding discussions of future local legislative bodies. Each municipality must take the appropriate legislative actions separately.


Enables smart growth at the scale of the larger landscape. Addresses issues that extend beyond municipal boundaries.


Gaining Ground Research Paper.

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